It investigates early warfare and violence from the standpoint of four broad interdisciplinary themes: skeletal markers of violence and weapon training; conflict in prehistoric rock-art; the material culture of conflict; and intergroup violence in archaeological discourse.
The book has a wide-ranging chronological and geographic scope, from early Neolithic to late Iron Age and from Western Europe to East Asia. Original case studies are presented in each section by a diverse international authorship. The problem has been approached from a number of standpoints including anthropological and behavioural studies of interpersonal violence, osteological examinations of sharp lesions and blunt-force traumas, wear analysis of ancient weaponry, and field experiments with replica weapons and armour.
This research, however, is often confined within the boundaries of the various disciplines and specialist fields.
In particular, a gap can often be detected between the research approaches grounded in the humanities and social sciences and those based on the archaeological sciences. The consequence is that, to this day, the subject is dominated by a number of undemonstrated assumptions regarding the nature of warfare, combat, and violence in non-literate societies. Moreover, important methodological questions remain unanswered: can we securely distinguish between violence-related and accidental trauma on skeletal remains?
To what extent can wear analysis shed light on long-forgotten fighting styles?
Warfare in Prehistoric Britain
Can we design meaningful combat tests based on historic martial arts? And can the study of rock-art unlock the social realities of prehistoric warfare?
By breaking the mould of entrenched subject boundaries, this edited volume promotes interdisciplinary debate in the study of prehistoric warfare and violence by presenting a number of innovative approaches that integrate qualitative and quantitative methods of research and analysis. Andrea Dolfini is a specialist in the later prehistory of Europe and the Mediterranean. His research interests encompass early copper and bronze technology, funerary practices, and ancient weaponry and warfare.
This was much like the way many peoples in France and Germany buried their dead at the same time. However, in other respects, the East Yorkshire Parisi lived in British style houses, wore British style ornaments and used British style pottery. At the time of the Romans, the Parisi had stopped burying they dead in this unusual way. However, the carried on other distinctive styles of life and remained separate from their large, powerful neighbours, the Brigantes.
After the Roman Conquest they were made into their own small civitas with their capital at Petuaria modern Brough on Humber. The Cornovii are a surprisingly obscure tribe, given that they lay well within the boundaries of the Roman province and their civitas capital, Wroxeter, was one of the largest in Britain. They share their name with a Caledonian tribe who lived in the far north of Scotland. The name probably means 'people of the horn'. There is no reason to think that this group shared any common ancestry with the group in Caithness.
Prehistory of War and Peace in Europe and the Near East - Oxford Scholarship
Many tribes or peoples in Europe at the time of the Roman Conquest shared similar names. This might be because these tribes had contacts with each other. But it is just as likely to be a coincidence, as people used similar types of names for themselves such as 'the people of the mountains' or 'the brave people' etc. The Cornovii never issued coinage and before the Roman Conquest left little evidence to recognise them.
They probably lived in what are today the modern counties of Staffordshire, Shropshire and Cheshire. The Deceangli , the Ordovices and the Silures were the three main tribe groups who lived in the mountains of what is today called Wales. However, in prehistory Wales, England and Scotland did not exist in anyway as distinctive entities in the ways they have done so for the last years.
The Deceangli were the peoples of what is today north Wales and probably included the peoples who lived on the Isle of Anglesey. The Romans considered Anglesey, or Mona as they and the locals at the time called it, as a stronghold of the Druids. Because the Druids played an important role in encouraging the recently conquered Britons to resist the Roman Conquers, the Roman army specifically targeted Anglesey for destruction.
On the eve of Boudicca's revolt in what is today East Anglia, the Roman Army has only just completed the long and difficult task of conquering the tribes living in the Welsh Mountains. The final episode of that conquest was the invasion of Anglesey and the slaughter of the Druids there. This group covered much of the mountains and valleys of what is today mid-Wales.
They were the northern neighbours of the Silures and the Southern neighbours of the Degeangli. Like the Silures and Degeangli , these peoples lived in small farms, often defended against attack. After the emperor Claudius invaded southern England in AD 43, one of the main leaders of the Britons, called Caratacus escaped to the Ordovices and the Silures. They were stirred into rebellion by Caratacus and for a long time successfully resisted the Romans. The Roman general Agricola only finally defeated the Ordovices in The tribe was incorporated into Britannia and became a civitas an administrative district.
This large tribe appears to have been created only shortly before the Roman Conquest of Britain. It offered no resistance to the Romans and was quickly turned into a civitas an administrative district equivalent to a modern county with its capital at the city of Leicester. The Corieltauvi combined groups of people living in what is today most of the East Midlands Lincolnshire.
Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Northamptonshire. Before about 50 to 1 BC, archaeological evidence suggests two different groups or tribes lived in this region. One lived in what is today Lincolnshire, the other in what is today Northamptonshire. Both areas were different to each other and were important centres of population and economy in the period c. The Corieltauvi are known from their coins that are found throughout the East Midlands. This group appears to have been a new federation that united earlier different groups. This was a region were people lived in villages, and some times larger settlements.
Leicester was certainly an important large settlement before the Roman Conquest, as were a number of large settlements in Lincolnshire, such as Dragonby and Old Sleaford. This was another tribe that issued coins before the Roman Conquest. Their coins and other archaeological evidence shows that the tribe's territory was in the modern counties of Norfolk and parts of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire. They appear to have been a wealthy and powerful group of tribes between and 50 BC.
From their territory come the finest hoards of gold treasure found in Iron Age Britain; the Snettisham torcs. Other hoards of elaborately decorated bronze chariot fittings point to a love of conspicuous display by the nobles of the Iceni. This tribe also shunned contacts with the Roman world and the changes they brought with them that characterised the life styles of Catuvellauni and Trinovantes at this time. The Iceni had important religious centres at Snettisham and at Thetford.
But when they were made into Roman Civitas, the Romans did not choose either of these centres, but the settlement at Caistor, near what is today Norwich. Was this because the Iceni led the most successful revolt against Roman rule in the history of Roman Britain?
Their king Prasutagus became a client-king of Rome. But on his death the kingdom was incorporated into the Roman province and together with other abuses led to the Icenian revolt led by Prasutagus' widow, Queen Boudicca. These were the people who lived in the fertile lands of Pembrokeshire and much of Carmarthenshire in southwest Wales. They lived in small farms scattered across the countryside and shared many features of their lives with their neighbours across the Bristol Channel in Devon and Cornwall.
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They were friendly towards the Romans and quickly adapted to Roman rule, unlike their more warlike and scattered neighbours in the mountains of Wales; the Silures and the Ordovices. Because of this the Demetae did not need to be intensively garrisoned by the Roman army, except along their eastern border, which may have been to protect them from their hostile neighbours, the Silures. The tribe was incorporated into the province of Britannia and became a civitas an administrative unit, or county, within the Roman province.
The capital of the Roman civitas was at Carmarthen Moridundum Demetarum. The Catuvellauni were the tribe that lived in the modern counties of Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire and southern Cambridgeshire. Their territory also probably included tribes in what is today Buckinghamshire and parts of Oxfordshire.
The tribal name possibly means 'good in battle'. The Catuvellauni existed as a tribe at the time of Julius Caesar, but in the following years became an extremely powerful group. Their first known king was Tasciovanus, who is known from the coins he minted with his name on them. There were several other large settlements or clusters of villages in their territory, such as at Baldock and Welwyn.
Before this time, the Catuvellauni , Trinovantes and Cantiaci were very different from other British tribes. They had been using coins for at least a century, adopted the same way of burying the dead as was practised in northern France, and eat and dressed in ways more common in France than other parts of Briton. Tasciovanus successors created a large kingdom through conquest and alliance that included the Trinovantes and Cantiaci.
The most successful king was Cunobelinus Cymbeline , but after his death in the late 30's AD, his kingdom was beset by rivalries between his successors. The Catuvellauni were one of the most pro-Roman of British peoples who very quickly and peacefully adopted Roman lifestyles and Roman rule. They became one of the first civitas in the new province, Verulamium becoming one of the first and most successful cities in Roman Britain.
Several Roman authors including Pliny, Ptolemy and Tacitus mention this tribe and later civitas administrative unit in a Roman province. Their territory was south east Wales - the Brecon Beacons and south Welsh valleys. A people of the mountains and valleys, we know relatively little about how they lived. Like the other tribes of the Welsh Mountains, they were difficult for the Romans to conquer and control.
For a time in the period around AD , they led the British opposition to the Roman advance westwards. Tacitus describes them as a strong and warlike nation, and for ten years or more the Romans fought to contain, rather than conquer them. Although defeated and occupied by the early 60's, their bitter resistance may explain the late grant of self governing civitas status to them only in the early 2nd century. The capital was established at a previously unoccupied site at Caerwent and was given the name Venta Silrum. Tacitus described them as swarthy and curly-haired, and suggested their ancestors might be from Spain because of the similarities in appearance with some peoples in Spain.